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Why Piping System in Centrifugal Pump is so Important?

The Pump,which raises Water or a Liquid,from Lower Level to Higher Level by the Action of Centrifugal Force,is known as Centrifugal Pump.
This is the Machine which converts Mechanical Energy into Pressure Energy.

The Action of Centrifugal Pump is that of a Reversed Reaction Turbine.In Centrifugal Pump,the Water enters the Impeller Radially and leaves the Vanes Axially.

The successful working of Centrifugal Pump depends upon the correct selection and layout of its Piping System.An extreme care should always be taken in selecting the size of the pipe and their arrangement.

In general,Centrifugal Pump has,
01)Suction Pipe.
02)Delivery Pipe.

Suction Pipe:-
The Suction Pipe of Centrifugal Pump,plays an important role in the successful and smooth working of the Pump.A poorly designed Suction Pipe causes insufficient Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH),Vibration,Noise,Water Hammer,Excessive Wear etc.

While laying the pipe,a great care should be taken to make it Air Tight.
To avoid the entry of Foreign Matter,a Strainer Foot Valve is connected at the bottom of the Suction Pipe.

Since the Pressure at the Inlet of the Pump is Suction,which is also known as Negative and its value is limited to avoid Cavitation,it is therefore essentialthat the losses in the Suction Pipe should be as small as possible.For this purpose,bends in the Suction pipe are avoided and its diameter is often kept larger.

Double Suction Pump are those in which,the Suction Pipe is branched into two parts and the liquid is allowed to enter the Impeller from both sides.The Axial Thrust in Double Suction Pump is considerbly low.

Delivery Pipe:-
In order to protect the Pump from Water Hammer and to regulate the discharge from the Pump,a Check Valve is provided in the Delivery Pipe,near the Pump.The size and length of the Delivery Pipe depends upon the requirment.

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